The Stalin Compiler

Stalin is a questionably named Scheme compiler written by Jeffrey Mark Siskind that can supposedly create binaries as fast or faster than Fortran or C for numerical problems. To test this, I tried creating a simple program to numerically integrate \sqrt{x} from 0 to 10000. To make things interesting, I used a manual Newton’s method implementation of sqrt from SICP.  The integration is done by a simple tail-recursive method.

The scheme code is very pretty:

(define (sqrt-iter guess x)
  (if (good-enough? guess x)
      (sqrt-iter (improve guess x)

(define (improve guess x)
  (average guess (/ x guess)))

(define (average x y)
  (/ (+ x y) 2))

(define (good-enough? guess x)
  (< (abs (- (* guess guess) x)) 0.001))

(define (mysqrt x)
  (sqrt-iter 1.0 x))

(define (int x acc step)
  (if (>= x 10000.0)
      (int (+ x step)
           (+ acc (* step (mysqrt x)))

(write (int 0.0 0.0 .001))

I then converted this to C. It is pretty much a transliteration, except it uses a for loop instead of recursion to accumulate the values:

#include "stdio.h"

double improve(double guess, double x);
double average(double x, double y);

double sqrt_iter(double guess, double x){
  if( good_enough(guess, x))
    return guess;
    return sqrt_iter( improve(guess,x), x);

double improve(double guess, double x){
  return average(guess, x/guess);

double average(double x, double y){
  return (x+y)/2;

int good_enough(double guess, double x){
  if (abs(guess*guess-x)<.001)
    return 1;
  return 0;

double mysqrt(double x){
  return sqrt_iter(1.0, x);

  double rez = 0;
  double x;
  double step = .001;
  for(x=0; x<= 10000; x+=step)
    rez += mysqrt(x)*step;
  printf("%f\n", rez);

I compiled the two methods via:

stalin -On -d -copt -O3
gcc -O3 int.c

The results are:
Stalin: 1.90s
gcc: 3.61s

If you declare every method inline in C, you get:

gcc-inline: 3.28s

For reference, I also compiled the code with chicken scheme, using the -optimize-level 3 compiler flag.

Chicken Scheme: 27.9s.

Some issues:

  • The Scheme code is more appealing on the whole, though it suffers from a lack of infix notation: (< (abs (- (* guess guess) x)) 0.001) is definitely harder to read than abs(guess*guess-x)<.001.  I wonder if more familiarity with prefix code would reduce this.
  • All three methods give slightly different results, which is worrisome.  In particular, Stalin is correct to 6 digits, whilst gcc and chicken are correct to 7.
  • Stalin apparently does not include macros.  One would think it would be easy to use the macro system from a different scheme compiler, and then send the source to stalin for final compilation.
  • Stalin is extremely slow to compile.  In principle this isn’t a big deal: you can debug using a different scheme compiler.  Still, Stalin seems to be somewhat less robust to edge cases, than at least chicken scheme.
  • It is amazing that Scheme code with no type declarations can beat C by almost a factor of 2.
  • Though in principle Stalin produces intermediate c code, it is utterly alien and low-level.  I have not been able to determine exactly what options Stalin is using when it calls gcc on the source code.  That could account for some of the difference.
  • A detailed writeup on Stalin is here.